In this group we aim to explore the beginnings of human societies and how the change from hunters/gatherers to settled agricultural communities took place and then affected the development of art and culture.
Who were the key actors? What were the roles of women and men? Some historians claim that the change to agriculture was worse for women, but is that true? Often in written history the story of women tends to get missed out as an aspect of life that was ‘normal’ and not worth reporting, while battles led by men are key features.
Much more is known these days about ancient cultures because the tools we can use to decipher old scripts or ancient bones are improved. So there is much new knowledge leading to new theories about the developments of societies.
All participants are invited to contribute with their own explorations, leading to us all learning from each other.
Group Convener : Greta Sykes
The Group meets in Crouch End, N8 on a Wednesday of every month, 2.30 – 4 p.m. The number of places available per meeting is 15
This form may also be used to contact the Convener on any other matter relating to the Group’s activities.
Our February meeting was entitled The Denisovan Cave.. David Lane showed us on slides how complex the work of scientists is who delve into the detail of DNA and nucleotides. There are 3 billion pairs of them and 99.9% are the same with other hominins. Only 0.1% is different. However, that still means three million possible differences! So plenty of chances for explorations. David mainly used the work of the Swedish Dr Svante Paabo who did much of this work. He compared DNA from Neanderthals with DNA from French, Chinese, Yoruba and Papua N Guinea people and found that 1 to 2% Neanderthal DNA is present.
He then studied the DNA from Denisovans whose bones were found in a cave in Russia. This involves so far the finger of a child and a 13 year old girl. The DNA found was considered sufficiently different to give it the name Denisovan hominin. It was found that 50,000 years ago modern humans mingled with Denisovans. Additionally, a Tibetan monk found a mandible. Protein analysis suggests a similar DNA to Denisovans. These explorations continue to fascinate and appear with new discoveries often in the scientific press. With the help of population genetics it is possible to reconstruct past traits and see how they remain or change over time. Adaptive introgression is one of the terms now used to speak about old material turning up in modern DNA.
We had a lively round table discussion after everyone in the group had gone to the Troy – Myth and Reality exhibition at the British Musuem. We found it raised many questions as well as offering a wonderful display of artefacts and comments. We particularly liked the glossy ancient vessels decorated with mythical stories about battles and intrigues and their descriptions, although some of the text we found was placed very low near the ground and therefore difficult to read. Some of us felt that the second part of the exhibition which focusses on the reality of Troy was lacking in detail. It offered some references to Calvert and Schliemann who began the digs in the Troy area which is in northern Turkey. It showed us some vessels from 2000 BC from the Minoean civilisation, one of which apparently had contained the jewels of Helena. There were useful comments relating that the Iliad and Odyssey were written hundreds of years after the battles had actually taken place. But little more was said on the context. It would have been good to have been offered a timeline illustrating the approximate dates of the Mycenean destruction of Troy and the resulting end of the Minoean culture in the context of other cultural developments including the shift from tribal life to chieftains and warrior groups. The British Museum article in their magazine states: ‘One reason why the story of Troy has lived on for so long is that it is simply a great story that has it all: love and loss, courage and passion, violence and vengeance …’. We wondered about the Trojan horse and if it could have been a real aspect, but Pat told us that it was probably just a poetic version of the ships’ hollow space and the waves seen as horses. We learnt that a city at that time could not have sustained a ten year war. Poetic licence was used to dramatize the former glorious events. We laughed about the gods who were so powerful and acted like human beings, getting angry and enjoying a sacrifice!
Continuing our explorations into early humans Ian presented us with further fascinating stories of the migration out of Africa. He brought Chris Stringer’s theories to our attention. His work is on display at the Natural History Museum in London. More than twenty hominin species are known so far that are part of the human family tree. Many of them were found as fossils within the last thirty years, adding to our knowledge and understanding of our origins. Ian told us that it is thought that there were three major movements out of Africa, called L1, L2 and L3. L1 may have led to Neanderthals who were still around when L2 and L3 arrived. As the new arrivals did not differ much from the earlier groups they were able to intermarry which led to many of us carrying 2% of genes from Neanderthals.
Chris Stringer is Co-director of the Pathways to Ancient Britain (PAB) programme at the Natural History Museum. Their work involves archeological sites throughout Britain, such as Happisburgh in Norfolk, Barnham in Suffolk and on the island of Jersey.
A lively discussion of the many interesting facets of this research was followed by some mulled wine and mince pies.
David Pashley spoke about DNA. He told us he had read David Reich’s book and found it puzzling and at times not very clear. The book was familiar to at least another one of us, but all of us had talked and thought about the fascinating story of how humans became humans and how the difference between us and our nearest ape relatives is ever so small. David gave us a feel for the various branches of humanoids and showed us their geographical movements and origins. It was in the 70s, he said, that the first genetic assessments were made. These started with mitochondrial DNA. By now approximately 6,000 ancient peoples have been analysed. Neanderthals existed for a time at the same time as homo sapiens, and it is now assumed that they intermingled with each other. David mentioned the Denisovan teeth from 40,000 years ago and Heidelberg man from Spain 400,000 years ago. 10,000 years ago hunters and gatherers spread throughout Europe. It is suggested that farming which followed led to similar DNA in Europe. We discussed the arrival of nomadic tribes from the east, about 5,000 years ago, who rode on horseback. Did they really have such a huge impact on DNA through engagements with farming communities and their women. This story continues to fascinate and we agreed to have further sessions on the subject.
At this meeting Pat focused on rock and cave art and had some fascinating examples to show us, some of them over 60 000 years old. She told us about the different theories as to why people started drawing and painting. She mentioned the many different sites where such works have so far been found. We concluded that much remains speculation, as we find it difficult to think ourselves into the thoughts and feelings of people so long ago. It was a very interesting session and we thanked Pat for it. Research from areas, such as anthropology, psychology and archaeology can, however, help to throw light on the distant past.
Despite a lower than usual attendance (due to a change of date) Nevertheless, we spent a lively and enjoyable hour and a half on the subject Ancient Egypt, Greece and Mesopotamia. This is one of the topics Greta has done quite a lot of work about. She gave a talk two years ago on it, and still finds the changes that took place among those early civilisations fascinating, especially, when one looks a bit more deeply at the place of women and the role of gods and goddesses. Both ancient Egypt and ancient Greece believed in many gods and goddesses. The arrival of monotheism had a gradual effect on all the early cultures in the area. Byzantium became Christian. Greta referenced Professor Judith Herrin who has done much to enlighten people in her book Byzantium :The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire (2007), about it
Our July meeting focused on the change from hunter gatherers to agriculture. This is, of course, an extremely fascinating ‘moment’ in human history, and one can talk and write about it for a long time, with few definite conclusions. Was the step from the freedom of the gatherers and hunters a result of climate changes, or was it due to human explorations or both? Was it a lucky development or was it a harder life than before? We can only guess at it. It certainly led to many more dramatic changes.
Mark gave us a complete overview of the latest theories. Known facts are that the change to agriculture first took a foothold in the Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia) and along the Yangtse river. An interesting aspect of the change was that women did not need to feed their babies for several years any more, because the new variety of foods, such as cereal, could be digested by much younger children than before. The changes took place over many thousands of years and arrived in Britain at about 5000 BC. Again, many questions were raised and we had a good discussion.
We started our meeting with a splash. Margot talked to us about the latest findings regarding the human species and other similar creatures. It used to be easy to distinguish between us, homo sapiens, and the Neanderthals. We were at the top and could look down at a species that was far below ours in terms of intelligence. These times are gone, Margot showed. From the news that we mingled and mixed with the Neanderthals things have moved on to show that nothing is quite as straight forward as it appeared.There are many hominid species that all developed over the thousands of years close to us. There were hobbits for over a hundred thousand years, famous Lucy, probably, was one of those. Even the idea that we all came out of Africa is not simple. There may have been human species that developed in the Far East, and there were waves of those who left Africa.This was a very enlightening session with plenty of discussion and ideas for other research in the future.